Spermatophyta: Dicotyledonae: Archichlamydeae: Malpighiales

Euphorbiaceae - Euphorbia family

Carter, S. & Leach, L.C. (2001) Euphorbiaceae: subfamily Euphorbioideae: tribe Euphorbieae Flora Zambesiaca 9(5)

Govaerts, R. et al. (2000) World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Radcliffe-Smith, A. (1996) Euphorbiaceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(4)

Description of the family

Dioecious or monoecious herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent, spiny or unarmed, sometimes with milky latex. Hairs 0, simple, stellate or stinging. Stipules present or 0. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or in whorls, usually simple, less often lobed or compound. Glands sometimes present near the apex of the petiole and base of lamina. Inflorescences various, sometimes in cyathia. Flowers unisexual, usually actinomorphic and very small. Calyx usually of 3-6 lobes or free sepals. Corolla with 3-6 free or ± united petals or 0. Disk present or 0. Stamens 3-many. Ovary superior, 1-4(-20)-locular, most commonly 3-locular. Styles (1-)3(-20). Fruit usually splitting into three 2-valved cocci, less often indehiscent. Seeds 1-2 per loculus, with or without a caruncle.

Comment: According to the most recent taxonomic research by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG-III), the traditional concepts of Euphorbiaceae were no longer found satisfactory. Many genera, formerly included in this family, have therefore now been placed in separate families. As this new concept has become widely accepted, we have adjusted accordingly, resulting in the following changes:

The genera formerly making up the subfamily Phyllanthoideae are now placed in Phyllanthaceae, with the exception of
Drypetes, which has been placed in the small family Putranjivaceae;
The genus Clutia has been placed in the small family Peraceae.

Worldwide: 313 genera and 8,100 species, cosmopolitan.

Zambia: 33 genera and 186 taxa.

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Links to genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

GenusContent
Acalypha L.Description
Alchornea Sw.Description
Argomuellera PaxDescription
Caperonia A.St.-Hil.Description
Chrozophora Neck. ex A. Juss.Description
Codiaeum A. Juss.Description
Croton L.Description
Dalechampia Plum. ex L.Description
Erythrococca Benth.Description
Euphorbia L.Description
Excoecaria L.Description
Jatropha L.Description
Macaranga ThouarsDescription
Mallotus Lour.Description
Manihot Mill.Description
Maprounea Aubl.Description
Micrococca Benth.Description
Monadenium PaxDescription
Neoboutonia Müll. Arg.Description
Neoholstia RauschertDescription
Oldfieldia Benth. & Hook. f.Description, Image
Plukenetia L.
Pseudagrostistachys Pax & K. Hoffm.Description
Ricinodendron Müll. Arg.Description
Ricinus L.Description, Image
Sapium P. BrowneDescription
Schinziophyton Hutch. ex Radcl.-Sm.Description
Sclerocroton Hochst.Description
Shirakiopsis EsserDescription
Suregada Roxb. ex RottlerDescription
Synadenium Boiss.Description
Tragia L.Description
Tragiella Pax & K. Hoffm.Description, Image

Other sources of information about Euphorbiaceae:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Botswana: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Caprivi: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Malawi: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Malawi: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Mozambique: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Mozambique: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Zambia: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Euphorbiaceae

External websites:

GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Euphorbiaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar


Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-17

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2017). Flora of Zambia: Family page: Euphorbiaceae.
http://www.zambiaflora.com/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=87, retrieved 25 November 2017

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