Spermatophyta: Dicotyledonae: Metachlamydeae: Lamiales

Scrophulariaceae - Snapdragon family




Hilliard, O.M. (1994) The Manuleae. A tribe of the Scrophulariaceae Edinburgh University Press

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1983) Loganiaceae (inc. Buddlejaceae) Flora Zambesiaca 7(1)

Philcox, D. (1990) Scrophulariaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(2)

Description of the family

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or, rarely, trees. Stipules mostly 0. Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled, entire, toothed or variously lobed or dissected. Inflorescences various. Pedicels with 0 or 2 bracteoles. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, usually zygomorphic. Calyx (3-)5-lobed, usually ± united. Corolla gamopetalous, sometimes produced into 1 or 2 spurs or sacs; limb usually 4- or 5-lobed, the lobes subequal or 2-lipped. Stamens 4, didynamous or sometimes equal, rarely 5. Ovary superior, 2(-4)-locular; ovules 1-many per loculus Fruit usually a capsule, sometimes a schizocarp, rarely a berry or drupe. Seeds small, numerous.

Worldwide: 62 genera and c. 1,700 species, cosmopolitan, but especially temperate areas and on tropical mountains.

Zambia: 1 cultivated genus and 1 cultivated taxon.

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Links to cultivated genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

Buddleja L.Description

Other sources of information about Scrophulariaceae:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Caprivi: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Malawi: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Mozambique: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Zambia: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Scrophulariaceae

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Scrophulariaceae
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Scrophulariaceae
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Scrophulariaceae
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Scrophulariaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Scrophulariaceae
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Scrophulariaceae
JSTOR Plant Science: Scrophulariaceae
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Scrophulariaceae
Wikipedia: Scrophulariaceae
Plants of the World Online: Scrophulariaceae
Tropicos: Scrophulariaceae

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-23

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2023). Flora of Zambia: Cultivated plants: Family page: Scrophulariaceae.
https://www.zambiaflora.com/cult/family.php?family_id=207, retrieved 26 September 2023

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