Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg

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Milicia excelsa

Picture: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Garden, Harare.

Milicia excelsa

Picture: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Garden, Harare.

Milicia excelsa

Picture: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Garden, Harare.

Milicia excelsa

Picture: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Garden, Harare.

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Chlorophora alba A. Chev.
Chlorophora excelsa (Welw.) Benth. & Hook. f.
Chlorophora tenuifolia Engl.
Milicia africana Sim
Morus excelsa Welw.
Common names:
Status: Native
Medium to large tree. Bark pale grey, rough and flaking in to squarish pieces. Leaves elliptic to oblong with an acuminate tip, dark green with conspicuous yellowish midrib and veins; base more or less cordate. Flowers unisexual on different trees. Male spikes much longer (8-20 cm) than the female (2-3 cm). Fruit fleshy, ellipsoid, mulberry-like, brown when ripe.
Type location:
Notes: Red data status: CR C2b
Derivation of specific name: excelsa: lofty, tall
Habitat: In moist forest.
Altitude range: Up to 1350 m
Flowering time:Aug - Oct
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in tropical Africa from Guinea-Bissau to Ethiopia and southwards to Angola and Zimbabwe
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): N
Zambian distribution (Provinces): Lp
Growth form(s): Tree.
Endemic status:
Red data list status: Critically Endangered
Insects associated with this species: Cyrestis camillus sublineata (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Berg, C.C. (1991). Moraceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(6) Pages 16 - 18. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (2003). Figs of Southern and South-Central Africa Umdaus Press, South Africa Pages 327 - 331. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 73. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 39.

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 130.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 234. As Chlorophora excelsa

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Zimbabwe Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 166.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 63.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 80.

White, F., Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Chapman, J.D. (2001). Evergreen forest flora of Malawi Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Pages 393 - 395. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Milicia excelsa:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Milicia excelsa
Flora of Malawi: Milicia excelsa
Flora of Mozambique: Milicia excelsa
Flora of Zimbabwe: Milicia excelsa

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Milicia excelsa
African Plant Database: Milicia excelsa
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Milicia excelsa
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Milicia excelsa
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Milicia excelsa
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Milicia excelsa
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Milicia excelsa
JSTOR Plant Science: Milicia excelsa
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Milicia excelsa
Plants of the World Online: Milicia excelsa
Tropicos: Milicia excelsa
Wikipedia: Milicia excelsa

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-24

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2024). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Milicia excelsa., retrieved 13 April 2024

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