Ficus verruculosa Warb.

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Ficus verruculosa

Picture: Bart Wursten
Cleveland Dam, Harare

Ficus verruculosa

Picture: Bart Wursten
Cleveland Dam, Harare

Ficus verruculosa

Picture: Mark Hyde
S of Mukuvisi R.

Ficus verruculosa

Picture: Rob Burrett
Silveira House, Chisawasha

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Common names: Citawa-tawa (Lamba) Kafumwe (Bemba) Musali (Bemba) Mvumu (Nyanja) Namulomo ()
Frequency: Occasional
Status: Native
Shrub, or weak-stemmed, sparsely branched shrub, rarely a small tree, often forming low, creeping thickets. Leaves oblong to lanceolate, leathery, hairless. Figs mostly in pairs in leaf axils, greenish, turning red when ripe.
Type location:
Notes: Trees or shrubs, terrestrial, epilithic (rock splitting), monoecious (both sexes on same plant), sap milky. Figs in pairs, or more together, in leaf axils or just below the leaves; basal bracts 3, lateral bracts absent, ostiole circular, with 3 ostiolar bracts visible (Genus Ficus, Subgenus Urostigma).
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: Sandy dambos, seeps, stream banks.
Altitude range:
Flowering time:Sep - Dec
Worldwide distribution: Niger and Uganda to South Africa.
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): B,W,C,E,S
Zambian distribution (Provinces): Nw,E,C,Lk,S,W
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m, shrub under 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status: Lower Risk - least concern
Insects associated with this species: Platyscapa binghami (Pollinated by this insect)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Wednesday 17 July 2013

Berg, C.C. (1991). Moraceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(6) Pages 56 - 58.

Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (2003). Figs of Southern and South-Central Africa Umdaus Press, South Africa Pages 79 - 82. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 85. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 17.

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 152 - 153.

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Page 51.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 234.

Mannheimer, C. & Curtis B. (2009). Le Roux and Müller's Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Namibia Macmillan Education, Windhoek, Namibia. Pages 28 - 29. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 63.

Roodt, V. (1998). Trees and Shrubs of the Okavango Delta Shell Field Guide Series: Part I Shell Oil Botswana, Gaberone. Pages 26 - 27. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 88.

Siebert, S. & Mössmer, M. (Editors) (2002). SABONET Southern Mozambique Expedition 2001; Provisional Plant Checklist of the Maputo Elephant Reserve (MER) and Licuati Forest Reserve (LFR) SABONET News 7(1) Page 27.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 219.

Other sources of information about Ficus verruculosa:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Ficus verruculosa
Flora of Caprivi: Ficus verruculosa
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Ficus verruculosa
Flora of Malawi: Ficus verruculosa
Flora of Mozambique: Ficus verruculosa
Flora of Zimbabwe: Ficus verruculosa

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Ficus verruculosa
African Plant Database: Ficus verruculosa
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Ficus verruculosa
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Ficus verruculosa
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Ficus verruculosa
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Ficus verruculosa
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Ficus verruculosa
JSTOR Plant Science: Ficus verruculosa
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Ficus verruculosa
Plants of the World Online: Ficus verruculosa
Tropicos: Ficus verruculosa
Wikipedia: Ficus verruculosa

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-24

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2024). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Ficus verruculosa., retrieved 4 March 2024

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