Ceratophyllum demersum L.
var. demersum

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Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum

Picture: Helen Pickering
Off Bovu Island, Zambezi River

Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum

Kasanka river at pontoon crossing, Kasanka National Park
Aug 2008
Photo: M.P.Kennedy

Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum

Kasanka river at pontoon crossing, Kasanka National Park
Aug 2008
Photo: M.P.Kennedy

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Synonyms: Ceratophyllum oxyacanthum Cham.
Ceratophyllum tuberculatum Cham.
Common names:
Status: Native
Submerged aquatic herb. Stems up to 3 m long and 2 mm in diameter, longitudinally grooved. Leaves in whorls of 7-11, 8-40 mm long, filiform, forked 1-2(3) times; margin with spine-tipped teeth, particularly in the apical segments. Flowers axillary, unisexual on the same plant; male flowers in many 1-3-flowered clusters per branch; female flowers solitary, few per branch. Fruit ovoid, ellipsoid to obovoid with an apical spine and 2 prominent basal spines, and raised dark spots on the surface.
Type location:
Derivation of specific name: demersum: submerged, underwater
Altitude range:
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Subcosmopolitan in temperate and tropical regions.
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): N,W,C,E,S
Zambian distribution (Provinces):
Growth form(s): Aquatic.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Friday 12 May 2017

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 35.

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 46.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 203. As Ceratophyllum demersum

Wilmot-Dear, C.M. (1991). Ceratophyllaceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(6) Pages 125 - 127. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum
Flora of Caprivi: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum
Flora of Malawi: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum
Flora of Mozambique: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum
Flora of Zimbabwe: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Ceratophyllum demersum
African Plant Database: Ceratophyllum demersum
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Ceratophyllum demersum
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Ceratophyllum demersum
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Ceratophyllum demersum
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Ceratophyllum demersum
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Ceratophyllum demersum
JSTOR Plant Science: Ceratophyllum demersum
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Ceratophyllum demersum
Plants of the World Online: Ceratophyllum demersum
Tropicos: Ceratophyllum demersum
Wikipedia: Ceratophyllum demersum

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-24

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2024). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Ceratophyllum demersum var. demersum.
https://www.zambiaflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123480, retrieved 26 February 2024

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