Xymalos monospora (Harv.) Baill.

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Xymalos monospora

Picture: Bart Wursten
Small dam in forest off the Woodland Rd, Vumba

Xymalos monospora

Picture: Bart Wursten
Small dam in forest off the Woodland Rd, Vumba

Xymalos monospora

Picture: Bart Wursten
Cloudlands Forest, Vumba Mts

Xymalos monospora

Picture: Bart Wursten
Cloudlands Forest, Vumba Mts

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Paxiodendron ulugurense Engl.
Paxiodendron usambarense Engl.
Toxicodendron acutifolium Benth.
Xymalos ulugurensis (Engl.) Engl.
Xymalos usambarensis (Engl.) Engl.
Common names:
Status: Native
Medium-sized to large tree, often coppicing from old trunks. Bark grey to brown, flaking off to reveal distinctive, often concentric markings. Leaves opposite, subopposite or alternate, broadly elliptic to obovate, 5-18 cm, dark green with translucent gland-dots; midrib and veins indented above; apex sharply tipped; margin irregularly toothed to almost entire, often rolled under. Flowers in short axillary spikes, near the ends of branches, yellowish, unisexual on different trees. Fruit ellipsoid, c. 1.5 cm, fleshy, hairless, red when ripe.
Type location:
South Africa
Derivation of specific name: monospora: 1-seeded
Habitat: In low-altitude to montane evergreen forest.
Altitude range: 550 - 2400 m
Flowering time:Jun - Oct
Worldwide distribution: From Cameroon and the Sudan southwards to East Africa and South Africa
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca):
Zambian distribution (Provinces): Mc
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Papilio dardanus cenea (Food plant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 212. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 138. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 59.

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 212 - 213.

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 88.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (1989). The flora and phytogeography of the evergreen forests of Malawi. I: Afromontane and mid-altitude forests; Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 59(1/2) Page 21.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 237.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 62.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 79.

Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, South Africa Pages 114 - 115. (Includes a picture).

Stannard, B.L. (1997). Monimiaceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(2) Pages 43 - 44. (Includes a picture).

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Page 8.

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 123.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 302 - 303. (Includes a picture).

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (2013). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa (Second edition) Struik, South Africa Pages 356 - 357. (Includes a picture).

White, F., Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Chapman, J.D. (2001). Evergreen forest flora of Malawi Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Page 379.

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 95.

Other sources of information about Xymalos monospora:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Xymalos monospora
Flora of Malawi: Xymalos monospora
Flora of Mozambique: Xymalos monospora
Flora of Zimbabwe: Xymalos monospora

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Xymalos monospora
African Plant Database: Xymalos monospora
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Xymalos monospora
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Xymalos monospora
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Xymalos monospora
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Xymalos monospora
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Xymalos monospora
JSTOR Plant Science: Xymalos monospora
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Xymalos monospora
Plants of the World Online: Xymalos monospora
Tropicos: Xymalos monospora
Wikipedia: Xymalos monospora

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-24

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2024). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Xymalos monospora.
https://www.zambiaflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123940, retrieved 16 June 2024

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