Vitex madiensis Oliv.
subsp. madiensis

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Synonyms: Vitex camporum Büttn.
Vitex hockii De Wild.
Vitex madiensis Oliv. var. gossweileri W. Piep.
Vitex simplicifolia Oliv.
Common names:
Status: Native
Shrub or small tree 3–8 m tall, or a suffrutex 0.3–1.5 m tall with annual stems from a massive underground woody rootstock. Bark fissured, dark red-brown; young stems shortly hairy with reddish-brown buds. Leaves aromatic when crushed, often 3-whorled, 1-3-foliolate (in this taxon), often drying yellow-green; leaflets 6–17 × 4–9 cm, median leaflet largest, broadly-obovate, thickly leathery, roughly hairy or hairless above, pubescent on the conspicuously raised veins beneath; margin usually entire or sometimes coarsely shallowly crenate in upper half, often wavy; petioles 7–16 cm long, grooved. Inflorescences axillary, slightly aromatic when crushed, 5–19(30) cm long, covered with stiff cream-coloured hairs. Calyx deep purplish-violet, obconical, 5-toothed, gland-dotted, hairy. Corolla 8–12 mm long, gland-dotted, hairy; tube greenish-cream or greenish-mauve, 4.5–6.5 mm long, curved; lobes dull pale mauve to lilac-violet or brilliant purple sometimes creamy with mauve or greenish marks. Stamen filaments with glandular hairs. Drupe ellipsoid, 2 cm long, rounded at the apex, the base not enclosed by the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity.
Type location:
Notes: This subspecies mainly differs from subsp. milanjiensis by the leaves being 1-3-foliolate with broadly obovate, thickly leathery leaflets.
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: Miombo and mixed deciduous woodlands with Combretum and Diospyros and floodplain grassland on termite mounds.
Altitude range: 600 - 1450 m
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Gambia, Senegal, Mali to northern Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, CAR, DRC, Angola, Sudan, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca):
Zambian distribution (Provinces): N,C
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Tuesday 7 February 2017

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 983.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 272.

Fernandes, R. (2005). Lamiaceae (subfamilies: Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7) Pages 83 - 84.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 57.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 71. as Vitex madiensis

Other sources of information about Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis:

Our websites:

Flora of Malawi: Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis
Flora of Zimbabwe: Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Vitex madiensis
African Plant Database: Vitex madiensis
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Vitex madiensis
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Vitex madiensis
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Vitex madiensis
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Vitex madiensis
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Vitex madiensis
JSTOR Plant Science: Vitex madiensis
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Vitex madiensis
Plants of the World Online: Vitex madiensis
Tropicos: Vitex madiensis
Wikipedia: Vitex madiensis

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-23

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2023). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis., retrieved 28 November 2023

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