Breonadia salicina (Vahl) Hepper & J.R.I. Wood

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Breonadia salicina

Picture: Alistair Hull
Kafue District, by Zambezi River, Zambian site.

Breonadia salicina

Drawing: Patricia Bingham

Breonadia salicina

Drawing: Patricia Bingham

Breonadia salicina

Drawing: Patricia Bingham

Breonadia salicina

North Luangwa NP, Marula Puku Camp; May 2010.
Photo: Mike Bingham

Breonadia salicina

Luano escarpment, road to Shikabeta; Jan 1971.
Photo: Mike Bingham

Breonadia salicina

Luangwa Valley
Aug 2016
Photo: Mike Fisher

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Adina microcephala Delile
Breonadia microcephala (Delile) Ridsdale
Nauclea microcephala Delile
Common names: Mumwina (Tumbuka) Mwena (Nyanja)
Frequency: Locally common
Status: Native
Medium to large evergreen tree. Leaves in whorls of 3 to 5 near the ends of branches, lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, leathery, dark green with the midrib yellow, raised conspicuously. Flowers in small axillary spherical heads of numerous minute, yellowish flowers. Fruits a small ball of capsules.
Type location:
Notes: Widespread; not threatened.
Derivation of specific name: salicina: willow-like, resembling a Salix
Habitat: In low-altitude riverine forest, invading rocky river banks, and sand shores.
Altitude range: Up to 1110 m
Flowering time:Nov - Dec
Worldwide distribution: Tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Yemen and Madagascar; Cameroon, Mali, South Sudan to South Africa, Eswatini and Angola.
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): N,C,E
Zambian distribution (Provinces): Mc,E,C,Lk
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Wednesday 21 September 2016

Bridson, D.M. & Verdcourt, B. (2003). Rubiaceae, Part 3 Flora Zambesiaca 5(3) Pages 416 - 418. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 948. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 10.

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa

Coates Palgrave, K. et al. (1956). Trees of Central Africa National Publications Trust, Salisbury. Pages 381 - 384. as Adina microcephala (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 99.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 274. As Adina microcephala

Fanshawe, D.B. (). District vegetation reports Division of Forest Research, Kitwe (roneo).

Fanshawe, D.B. (1971). The Vegetation of Zambia. Division of Forest Research, Kitwe.

Fowler, D.G. (2007). Zambian Plants: Their Vernacular Names and Uses, Kew Publishing

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32

Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, South Africa Pages 616 - 617. (Includes a picture).

Siebert, S. & Mössmer, M. (Editors) (2002). SABONET Southern Mozambique Expedition 2001; Provisional Plant Checklist of the Maputo Elephant Reserve (MER) and Licuati Forest Reserve (LFR) SABONET News 7(1) Page 28.

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Page 77. As Adina microcephala

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 160.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 364 - 365. (Includes a picture).

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (2013). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa (Second edition) Struik, South Africa Pages 426 - 427. (Includes a picture).

White, F. (1962). Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia Oxford Univ. Press.

White, F. (1983). The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir. UNESCO, Paris

White, F., Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Chapman, J.D. (2001). Evergreen forest flora of Malawi Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Pages 462 - 464.

Other sources of information about Breonadia salicina:

Our websites:

Flora of Malawi: Breonadia salicina
Flora of Mozambique: Breonadia salicina
Flora of Zimbabwe: Breonadia salicina

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Breonadia salicina
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Breonadia salicina
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Breonadia salicina
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Breonadia salicina
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Breonadia salicina
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Breonadia salicina
JSTOR Plant Science: Breonadia salicina
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Breonadia salicina
Plants of the World Online: Breonadia salicina
Tropicos: Breonadia salicina
Wikipedia: Breonadia salicina

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-24

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2024). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Breonadia salicina., retrieved 17 April 2024

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