Cenchrus biflorus Roxb.

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Cenchrus biflorus

Picture: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Cenchrus biflorus

Picture: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Cenchrus biflorus

Picture: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Cenchrus biflorus

Picture: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

Cenchrus biflorus

Picture: Sune Holt
Vilankulo, Inhambane, Mozambique

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Synonyms: Cenchrus annularis Anderss.
Cenchrus perinvolucratus Stapf & Hubbard
Common names:
Frequency:
Status: Native
Description:
Annual grass with ascending culms 5–90 cm high. Panicle 2–15 cm long; involucre 4–11 mm long, connate at the base to forming an ovoid or diamond-shaped disk at the base 2–4 mm wide; inner spines flattened, retrorsely barbellate and sharp at the apex; outer spines numerous, borne in a whorl around the rim of the disk. Spikelets 1–3 per bur, 3.5–6 mm long.
Type location:
India
Notes: P.J. Skerman & F. Riveros, 1990. Tropical Grasses. FAO: "It is one of the best available standover feeds in the Sahel after its seed bur has shed. Being an annual, it does not last long. It makes a good hay if cut before the burs harden." "It is readily eaten in the preflowering stage and after the seed bur has shed." "It is being used in de-desertification on the Thar Desert of Rajasthan (Aggarwal & Lahini, 1977). In times of scarcity the seeds are eaten by humans (Bor, 1960)."
Gibbs Russell et al., 1990. Grasses of southern Africa. "Invader from tropical America. Pantropical weed." [Note that C. incertus M.A. Curtis is also described as an invader from tropical America."
Derivation of specific name: biflorus: 2-flowered
Habitat: Often weedy in old cultivation and disturbed places, usually on sandy soils.
Altitude range: Up to 1300 m
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Throughout tropical Africa and India.
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): B,C,S
Zambian distribution (Provinces): N,S,W
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Friday 2 August 2019
Literature:

Chapano, C. (2002). A checklist of Zimbabwean grasses Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 16. Pretoria. Page 13.

Clayton, W.D. (1989). Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(3) Page 188.

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 131.

Fish, L., Mashau, A.C., Moeaha, M.J. & Nembudani, M.T. (2015). Identification Guide to Southern African Grasses Strelitzia 36 South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria Page 157.

Heath, A. & Heath, R. (2009). Field Guide to the Plants of Northern Botswana including the Okavango Delta Kew Publishing Page 507. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 101.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 127.

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 132.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 187.

Other sources of information about Cenchrus biflorus:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Cenchrus biflorus
Flora of Caprivi: Cenchrus biflorus
Flora of Mozambique: Cenchrus biflorus
Flora of Zimbabwe: Cenchrus biflorus

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Cenchrus biflorus
African Plant Database: Cenchrus biflorus
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Cenchrus biflorus
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Cenchrus biflorus
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Cenchrus biflorus
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Cenchrus biflorus
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Cenchrus biflorus
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Cenchrus biflorus
iNaturalist: Cenchrus biflorus
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Cenchrus biflorus
JSTOR Plant Science: Cenchrus biflorus
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Cenchrus biflorus
Kew Monocotyledon checklist: Cenchrus biflorus
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Cenchrus biflorus
Plants of the World Online: Cenchrus biflorus
The Plant List (version 1.1): Cenchrus biflorus
Tropicos: Cenchrus biflorus
Wikipedia: Cenchrus biflorus


Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-19

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2019). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Cenchrus biflorus.
https://www.zambiaflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=107910, retrieved 19 October 2019

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