Rhamnus prinoides L'Hér.

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Rhamnus prinoides

Picture: Bart Wursten
Road to Bunga Views, Vumba

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Common names:
Status: Native
Shrub or small tree, sometimes scrambling. Bark dark, smooth with conspicuous lenticels. Leaves spirally arranged, oblong-elliptic, up to 10 × 4 cm, very glossy dark green above, dull and paler below, veining indented above, domatia present; margin finely toothed or scalloped. Flowers in small stalked axillary clusters, greenish and inconspicuous. Fruit stalked, ovoid to subspherical, c. 5 mm in diameter, shiny red to almost black when ripe, edible.
Type location:
South Africa
Derivation of specific name: prinoides: from prinos, the Greek name for Holly (Ilex sp.) which also has glossy leaves.
Habitat: Most often in riverine fringes and evergreen forest margins; also in rocky places and less often in woodland.
Altitude range:
Flowering time:Oct - Jan
Worldwide distribution: From Ethiopia to Angola and South Africa
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): N,W,C,E
Zambian distribution (Provinces): N,Mc,C
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 234. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 549. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 670 - 671. (Includes a picture).

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (1989). The flora and phytogeography of the evergreen forests of Malawi. I: Afromontane and mid-altitude forests; Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 59(1/2) Page 22.

Drummond, R.B. (1966). Rhamnaceae Flora Zambesiaca 2(2) Pages 427 - 429. (Includes a picture).

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 257.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 69.

Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, South Africa Pages 380 - 381. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 96.

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 158.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 152 - 153.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (2013). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa (Second edition) Struik, South Africa Pages 176 - 177. (Includes a picture).

White, F., Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Chapman, J.D. (2001). Evergreen forest flora of Malawi Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Pages 444 - 446. (Includes a picture).

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 98.

Other sources of information about Rhamnus prinoides:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Rhamnus prinoides
Flora of Malawi: Rhamnus prinoides
Flora of Mozambique: Rhamnus prinoides
Flora of Zimbabwe: Rhamnus prinoides

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Rhamnus prinoides
African Plant Database: Rhamnus prinoides
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Rhamnus prinoides
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Rhamnus prinoides
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Rhamnus prinoides
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Rhamnus prinoides
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Rhamnus prinoides
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Rhamnus prinoides
iNaturalist: Rhamnus prinoides
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Rhamnus prinoides
JSTOR Plant Science: Rhamnus prinoides
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Rhamnus prinoides
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Rhamnus prinoides
Plants of the World Online: Rhamnus prinoides
The Plant List (version 1.1): Rhamnus prinoides
Tropicos: Rhamnus prinoides
Wikipedia: Rhamnus prinoides

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-20

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2020). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Rhamnus prinoides.
https://www.zambiaflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=137730, retrieved 21 January 2020

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