Rhamnus prinoides L'Hér.

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Rhamnus prinoides

Picture: Bart Wursten
Road to Bunga Views, Vumba

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Common names:
Status: Native
Shrub or small tree, sometimes scrambling. Bark dark, smooth with conspicuous lenticels. Leaves spirally arranged, oblong-elliptic, up to 10 × 4 cm, very glossy dark green above, dull and paler below, veining indented above, domatia present; margin finely toothed or scalloped. Flowers in small stalked axillary clusters, greenish and inconspicuous. Fruit stalked, ovoid to subspherical, c. 5 mm in diameter, shiny red to almost black when ripe, edible.
Type location:
South Africa
Derivation of specific name: prinoides: from prinos, the Greek name for Holly (Ilex sp.) which also has glossy leaves.
Habitat: Most often in riverine fringes and evergreen forest margins; also in rocky places and less often in woodland.
Altitude range:
Flowering time:Oct - Jan
Worldwide distribution: From Ethiopia to Angola and South Africa
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): N,W,C,E
Zambian distribution (Provinces): N,Mc,C
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 234. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 549. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 47.

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 670 - 671. (Includes a picture).

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (1989). The flora and phytogeography of the evergreen forests of Malawi. I: Afromontane and mid-altitude forests; Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 59(1/2) Page 22.

Drummond, R.B. (1966). Rhamnaceae Flora Zambesiaca 2(2) Pages 427 - 429. (Includes a picture).

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 257.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 69.

Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, South Africa Pages 380 - 381. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 96.

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 158.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 152 - 153.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (2013). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa (Second edition) Struik, South Africa Pages 176 - 177. (Includes a picture).

White, F., Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Chapman, J.D. (2001). Evergreen forest flora of Malawi Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Pages 444 - 446. (Includes a picture).

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 98.

Other sources of information about Rhamnus prinoides:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Rhamnus prinoides
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Rhamnus prinoides
Flora of Malawi: Rhamnus prinoides
Flora of Mozambique: Rhamnus prinoides
Flora of Zimbabwe: Rhamnus prinoides

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Rhamnus prinoides
African Plant Database: Rhamnus prinoides
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Rhamnus prinoides
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Rhamnus prinoides
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Rhamnus prinoides
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Rhamnus prinoides
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Rhamnus prinoides
JSTOR Plant Science: Rhamnus prinoides
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Rhamnus prinoides
Plants of the World Online: Rhamnus prinoides
Tropicos: Rhamnus prinoides
Wikipedia: Rhamnus prinoides

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-24

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2024). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Rhamnus prinoides.
https://www.zambiaflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=137730, retrieved 23 April 2024

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