Afrohybanthus enneaspermus (L.) Flicker

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Afrohybanthus enneaspermus

Picture: Alistair Hull
Nyakasanga Safari Area

Afrohybanthus enneaspermus

Picture: Alistair Hull
Nyakasanga Safari Area

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Synonyms: Calceolaria enneasperma (L.) Kuntze
Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell.
Hybanthus heterophyllus (Vent.) Baill.
Hybanthus hirtus (Klotzsch) Engl.
Hybanthus hirtus (Klotzsch) Engl. var. klotzschii Engl.
Hybanthus hirtus (Klotzsch) Engl. var. glabrescens Engl.
Ionidium enneaspermum (L.) Vent.
Ionidium heterophyllum Vent.
Ionidium hirtum Klotzsch
Viola enneasperma L.
Common names:
Status: Native
Perennial, sometimes annual herb with spreading to ascending stems, usually up to 60 cm high. Leaves alternate, 2-6.5 cm long, in this variety linear to narrowly elliptic, hairless to more or less densely hairy; margin usually entire. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils on a pedicel up to 1.8 mm long, rose-pink to violet or bluish, normally with darker streaks and white in the centre; lower petal up to 2 × 2 cm, almost square with a short blunt spur. Fruit a 3-sided capsule, 5-8 mm long, pale yellow, hairless.
Type location:
Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Derivation of specific name: enneaspermus: 9-seeded
Habitat: In grassland, along roadsides, in rock crevices and other exposed dry places, often on sandy soils.
Altitude range: Up to 1000 m
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, tropical Asia and Australia.
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): S
Zambian distribution (Provinces): S
Growth form(s): Annual, perennial.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Pardopsis punctatissima (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 32.

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 21.

Flicker, B.J. & Ballard Jr, H.E. (2015). Afrohybanthus (Violaceae), a new genus for a distinctive and widely distributed Old World hybanthoid lineage Phytotaxa 230(1) Pages 47 - 49.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 82.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 102.

Pooley, E. (1998). A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Region. Natal Flora Publications Trust. Durban. Pages 408 - 409. as Hybanthus enneaspermus (Includes a picture).

Robson, N.K.B. (1960). Violaceae Flora Zambesiaca 1(1) Pages 254 - 257. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 111.

Other sources of information about Afrohybanthus enneaspermus:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
Flora of Mozambique: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
Flora of Zimbabwe: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
African Plant Database: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
iNaturalist: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
JSTOR Plant Science: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
Plants of the World Online: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
Tropicos: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus
Wikipedia: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-21

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2021). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Afrohybanthus enneaspermus., retrieved 3 December 2021

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