Echinochloa colona (L.) Link

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Echinochloa colona

Picture: Petra Ballings
Shashe Wilderness Camp, Tuli

Echinochloa colona

Picture: Petra Ballings
Shashe Wilderness Camp, Tuli

Echinochloa colona

Picture: Petra Ballings
Shashe Wilderness Camp, Tuli

Echinochloa colona

Picture: Petra Ballings
Shashe Wilderness Camp, Tuli

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Brachiaria longifolia Gilli
Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. subsp. colona (L.) Honda
Echinochloa divaricata Anderss.
Echinochloa subverticillata Pilger
Panicum colonum L.
Panicum colonum var. atroviolaceum Hack.
Panicum colonum var. angustatum Peter
Panicum echinochloa Th. Dur. & Schinz
Common names:
Status: Native
Annual grass with erect or ascending culms 10–150 cm high; ligule absent. Inflorescence typically linear, up to 20 cm long; racemes up to 5 cm long, neatly 4-rowed, simple, commonly c. 1/2 their length apart and appressed to the axis but sometimes subverticillate and spreading, rarely congested. Spikelets subglobose to ovate-elliptic, 1.5–3.5 mm long, softly to harshly hairy, often purple tinged. Inferior floret male or infertile, lemma acute. Superior lemma 2–3 mm long.
Type location:
Derivation of specific name: colona: "of the farmers". It has sometimes been spelled as colonum.
Habitat: In muddy or swampy places, often weedy.
Altitude range: Up to 2000 m
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Throughout the tropics and subtropics.
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): N,C,E,S
Zambian distribution (Provinces): N,C,Lk,S
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Friday 2 August 2019

Chapano, C. (2002). A checklist of Zimbabwean grasses Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 16. Pretoria. Page 10.

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 23.

Clayton, W.D. (1989). Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(3) Pages 53 - 55. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 133.

Fish, L., Mashau, A.C., Moeaha, M.J. & Nembudani, M.T. (2015). Identification Guide to Southern African Grasses Strelitzia 36 South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria Page 239.

Heath, A. & Heath, R. (2009). Field Guide to the Plants of Northern Botswana including the Okavango Delta Kew Publishing Page 435. (Includes a picture).

Jackson, G. & Wiehe, P.O. (1958). An Annotated Check List of Nyasaland Grasses The Government Printer, Zomba, Nyasaland Page 36.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 103.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 129.

Roodt, V. (2015). Grasses & Grazers of Botswana and the surrounding savanna Struik Nature, South Africa Pages 88 - 89. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 135.

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 146.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 188.

Van Oudtshoorn, F.P. (1992). Grasses of South Africa Briza Publications, South Africa Page 207. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Echinochloa colona:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Echinochloa colona
Flora of Caprivi: Echinochloa colona
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Echinochloa colona
Flora of Malawi: Echinochloa colona
Flora of Mozambique: Echinochloa colona
Flora of Zimbabwe: Echinochloa colona

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Echinochloa colona
African Plant Database: Echinochloa colona
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Echinochloa colona
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Echinochloa colona
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Echinochloa colona
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Echinochloa colona
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Echinochloa colona
JSTOR Plant Science: Echinochloa colona
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Echinochloa colona
Plants of the World Online: Echinochloa colona
Tropicos: Echinochloa colona
Wikipedia: Echinochloa colona

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-24

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2024). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Echinochloa colona., retrieved 18 July 2024

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