Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase

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Echinochloa pyramidalis

Picture: David Hartung
Monavale Vlei

Echinochloa pyramidalis

Picture: David Hartung
Monavale Vlei

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Synonyms: Echinochloa holubii (Stapf) Stapf
Panicum crus-galli var. molle Peter
Panicum holubii Stapf
Panicum pyramidale Lam.
Panicum pyramidale var. hebetatum Stapf
Panicum pyramidale var. spadiceum Peter
Common names:
Status: Native
Erect robust tall perennial grass up to 4 m tall. Ligule a line of hairs. Inflorescence 8 - 40 cm long, with numerous overlapping racemes or with 4-10 distant appressed racemes. Racemes straight, simple or compound, ascending. Spikelets large, 2.5-3.5(-4) mm long, plump, elliptic, awnless. Lower lemma acute to acuminate, rarely with a subulate mucro. Upper lemma 2-3 mm.
Type location:
Derivation of specific name: pyramidalis: pyramidal (referring to the inflorescence)
Habitat: In vleis, wet grassland and by rivers and streams
Altitude range:
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Occurs in tropical and South Africa
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): B,N,W,C,E,S
Zambian distribution (Provinces): N,C,Lk,W
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Saturday 1 February 2014

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 14.

Clayton, W.D. (1989). Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(3) Pages 56 - 57.

Isaiah, A.M. & Komi, T. (2015). Grasses in the Botswana National Botanic Garden South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria Page 14. as Echinochloa holubii (Includes a picture).

Jackson, G. & Wiehe, P.O. (1958). An Annotated Check List of Nyasaland Grasses The Government Printer, Zomba, Nyasaland Page 37.

Klaassen Esmerialda, E.S. & Craven P. (2003). Checklist of grasses in Namibia SABONET Report No. 20 Pages 30 - 31. also as Echinochloa holubii

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 103.

Siebert, S. & Mössmer, M. (Editors) (2002). SABONET Southern Mozambique Expedition 2001; Provisional Plant Checklist of the Maputo Elephant Reserve (MER) and Licuati Forest Reserve (LFR) SABONET News 7(1) Page 28. As Echinochloa holubii

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 188.

Other sources of information about Echinochloa pyramidalis:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Echinochloa pyramidalis
Flora of Caprivi: Echinochloa pyramidalis
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Echinochloa pyramidalis
Flora of Malawi: Echinochloa pyramidalis
Flora of Mozambique: Echinochloa pyramidalis
Flora of Zimbabwe: Echinochloa pyramidalis

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Echinochloa pyramidalis
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Echinochloa pyramidalis
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Echinochloa pyramidalis
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Echinochloa pyramidalis
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Echinochloa pyramidalis
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Echinochloa pyramidalis
JSTOR Plant Science: Echinochloa pyramidalis
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Echinochloa pyramidalis
Plants of the World Online: Echinochloa pyramidalis
Tropicos: Echinochloa pyramidalis
Wikipedia: Echinochloa pyramidalis

Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-24

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2024). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Echinochloa pyramidalis., retrieved 16 June 2024

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