Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl.[Agg]

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Commiphora africana

Lusaka 1976
Drawing: Patricia Bingham

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Synonyms: Balsamea pilosa Engl.
Balsamodendrum africanum (A. Rich.) Arn.
Commiphora calcicola Engl.
Commiphora nkolola Engl.
Commiphora pilosa (Engl.) Engl.
Commiphora rubriflora Engl.
Commiphora sambesiaca Engl.
Heudelotia africana. A. Rich.
Common names:
Frequency:
Status: Native
Description:
Shrub or small tree. Bark grey-green, flaking, exuding pale gum where damaged. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets obovate, terminal leaflet at least twice the size of lateral leaflets, covered in fine velvety hairs on both surfaces; margin scalloped. Flowers small, in axillary clusters, reddish green. Fruit almost spherical, red when ripe.
Type location:
Senegambia
Notes: (a) two varieties have been recorded in Zambia. They can only be reliably distinguished when in flower by the hairless pedicels in the widespread var. africana while they are pubescent in var. rubriflora (Engl.) Wild which is only known from the North of the country. We have therefor combined all records for the two varieties.
(b) C. africana is similar to Commiphora schimperi which has hairless, glossy leaflets.
Derivation of specific name: africana: African
Habitat: In dry bush and woodland, often in rocky places.
Altitude range:
Flowering time:Oct
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in tropical Africa, Namibia and northern South Africa
Zambian distribution (Flora Zambesiaca): B,N,W,S
Zambian distribution (Provinces): Cb,Lp,S,W
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Content last updated: Thursday 5 January 2017
Literature:

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 367. As Commiphora africana var. africana (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 15. as var. rubriflora

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 10. as var. rubriflora

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 428. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave, K. et al. (1956). Trees of Central Africa National Publications Trust, Salisbury. Pages 58 - 60. as Commiphora pilosa (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave, M. (1989). Guide to the trees and shrubs of the Mukuvisi Woodlands ?publisher. Page 39.

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Pages 264 - 265. As Commiphora africana var. africana (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 39. as var. africana and var. rubriflora.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 249. as var. africana and var. rubriflora.

Ellery, K. & W. (1997). Plants of the Okavango Delta, a Field Guide Tsaro Publishers, Durban, South Africa Page 106. (Includes a picture).

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Namibia Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 77.

Mannheimer, C. & Curtis B. (2009). Le Roux and Müller's Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Namibia Macmillan Education, Windhoek, Namibia. Pages 200 - 201. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 31. as both varieties

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 37. as var. africana and var. rubriflora.

Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, South Africa Pages 244 - 245. As Commiphora africana var. africana (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 41. As Commiphora africana var. africana

Setshogo, M.P. & Venter, F. (2003). Trees of Botswana: names and distribution SABONET Report No. 18 Southern African Botanical Diversity Network, Pretoria Page 37.

Shone, D.K. & Drummond, R.B. (1965). Poisonous Plants of Rhodesia Ministry of Agriculture, Rhodesia Page 59.

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Page 31. as Commiphora pilosa

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 62.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 380 - 381. (Includes a picture).

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (2013). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa (Second edition) Struik, South Africa Pages 442 - 443. as var. africana and var. rubriflora. (Includes a picture).

White, F. (1962). Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia Oxford Univ. Press. Page 176.

Wild, H. (1963). Burseraceae Flora Zambesiaca 2(1) Pages 276 - 277. as var. africana and var. rubriflora.

Other sources of information about Commiphora africana:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Commiphora africana
Flora of Caprivi: Commiphora africana
Flora of Malawi: Commiphora africana
Flora of Mozambique: Commiphora africana
Flora of Zimbabwe: Commiphora africana

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Commiphora africana
African Plant Database: Commiphora africana
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Commiphora africana
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Commiphora africana
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Commiphora africana
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Commiphora africana
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Commiphora africana
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Commiphora africana
iNaturalist: Commiphora africana
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Commiphora africana
JSTOR Plant Science: Commiphora africana
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Commiphora africana
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Commiphora africana
Plants of the World Online: Commiphora africana
Tropicos: Commiphora africana
Wikipedia: Commiphora africana


Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-20

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2020). Flora of Zambia: Species information: Commiphora africana.
https://www.zambiaflora.com/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=133260, retrieved 25 November 2020

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